The 1950′s Version
“An Evening coque samsung s7 qu en with Fred Astaire” shines to this day as an example of excellence in early television. The program was produced in the midst of the turbulence over television transition from kinescopes to videotape, monochrome to color, and live to recorded. But NBC, the network that aired it, was working through dilemmas largely of its own making.
“An Evening with Fred Astaire” shines to this day as an example of excellence in early television. The program was produced in the midst of the coque huawei p8 turbulence over television transition from kinescopes to videotape, monochrome to color, and live to recorded. But NBC, the network that aired it, was working through dilemmas largely of its own making. Videotape was a hit for time zone delays but, like kinescopes, it was still onlyblack white. Pre recording of shows in part or in full was being tried out. Editors started experimenting with physically cutting videotape to edit it.
Out of this turmoil came a program that was such a hit, it received Emmy Awards in a record amount and is still honored coque samsung s7 livraison gratuite to this day.
Last year I wrote about the demise of the NBC’s Studios in coque samsung s9 pasteque Burbank, California. A lot of television history was made at 3000 West Alameda Avenue and I couldn’t let the closing of this icon of television pass without digging up as much of the facility’s story as I could. Evidently I was not alone in my interest. There were others in the trade writing and discussing it as well. All the articles, including my own (bothpart 1andpart 2) were widely read and very popular.
In one section, I wrote about the production of an NBC Special “An samsung a5 2017 coque integrale Evening with Fred Astaire” and its place in early television history. After reading my article, one reader, Mr. John Butler, wrote to me questioning some conflicting coque samsung s9 clear view cover information regarding that broadcast on October 17th, 1958. Because the show was said to be one of the first to have edits in it, Mr. Butler questioned whether the show had been done live or on tape or a combination.
This piqued my curiosity particularly as I had referenced Art Schneider’s discussion of the pioneer use of NBC’s Edit Sync Guide (ESG) on the program from his memoir “Jump Cut” both in part two of the NBC article as well as my article on thehistory of SMPTE Time Code. Schneider was an NBC film coque a5 2017 samsung miroir (and later, tape) editor who distinguished himself on many shows over the years including the sixties hit “Rowan Martin’s Laugh In.”
Independently, Mr. Butler and myself did more research and we came away with some interesting facts about the Astaire show. The new information then led me to the story of the show’s restoration and conversion to digital thirty years later (resulting in an unprecedented10thEmmy Awardfor the show) and to a television history guru, Ed Reitan, who’suntimely passingsilences much knowledge of television’s early days.
Reitan knew more than the history of television. He could re build it, too. It was Reitan who did the in depth technical work required to resurrect the hand made color videotape format that recorded the Astaire coque rainbow six siege samsung s8 program. I’ll devote another article to Reitan and explore some of his work, including the restoration of “An Evening with Fred Astaire.” My thanks go out to his associate, Don Kent, for his assistance. Kent was a good friend of Reitan’s and shared the Emmy Award with Reitan as well as Dan Einstein, curator of the UCLA Film and Television Archives.
Left to coque samsung s7 edge qui ferme right: Dan Einstein, Ed Reitan, Bob Rosen (Director of the UCLA Film TV Archive) and Don Kent the night they received the Technical Emmy Award for the restoration of Evening with Fred Astaire. Courtesy of Don KentTo recap, the Astaire show was produced in the new Color City studios at NBC Burbank. In his book, samsung galaxy s8 plus coque transparente Schneider wrote that the show was the first to make use of ESG. It allowed the frame accurate editing of the television recording formattwo inch quadruplex video tape. It was a cumbersome system but it worked. Years later, the concept of applying unique addresses to individual frames of video on tape would be applied to SMPTE time code, the all electronic based system that would eventually operate under computer control and make the edits without the need to physically cut the tape as two inch quadruplex editing had to be done in that short era.
In his book, Schneider states, “In 1958, NBC Burbank began using this new process to edit the first Fred Astaire special.” coque paillette samsung galaxy s8 Up until that time, the editors had only been testing “using segments from NBC productions,” and goes on to say, “All this was kept confidential,” so they (the editors) wouldn’t be pressured “to start using this process before we coque integrale s10 plus samsung were convinced that it would really work.” The use of this system and the way Schneider explained it in his book have lead many to believe the Astaire program was one of the first to be recorded on tape, edited using ESG and then broadcast.
More evidence was found in an edition of RCA Broadcast News, a magazine to promote RCA Broadcast products published from the early 1930′s to the end of 1984 when RCA ceased building broadcast equipment. Nies, an NBC Burbank recording engineer, asserts “A large portion of the network verre trempe samsung s8 compatible coque business at the west coast plant in Burbank is concerned with the pre recording of programs for later release,” and goes on to give examples including “The Fred Astaire Shows” without qualifying which shows. Ultimately, there were four Astaire coque samsung s6 shows but only one in 1958 (according to the Internet Movie DataBase, the shows are Evening with Fred Astaire (1958), Evening with Fred Astaire (1959), Time (1960), and Fred Astaire Show (1968).
But some conjecture on the Internet that the whole show had been recorded on tape prior to its airtime was not the case. The show was produced live for the Eastern and Central time zones of the United States from Burbank. Mr. Butler found an Emmy Legends interview with Bud Yorkin, the director of the show where he claims he used all the stages NBC Burbank had to offer on that particular evening.
At that time, the Burbank facility had four stages and given the complexity and breadth of the Astaire show, a fully live production would have needed that much space.
My own research yielded similar results. Newspaper archives revealed several clippings confirming the fact at least portions of coque samsung s8 sao the show had been done live. However, the possibility still existed that segments coque samsung s8 gameboy could have been recorded, edited and rolled into the show even though Yorkin’s interview seems to dispute that.
To know how I arrived at some of my conclusions, a brief examination of the state of television in the mid fifties is in order.
At the time the Astaire program was produced, videotape was still quite new and television was primarily still monochrome (black and white). Central coque huawei mate Time Zone, affiliates not yet connected to the coaxial cable and stations electing to run shows in other times slots due to multiple network affiliations. In addition, kinescopes were costly as the process exposed thousands of feet of film stock that also had to be processed.
The first use of Videotape on the air, November 30, 1956, from CBS Television City. Engineer John Radis monitors playback of the West Coast time zone delay of Edwards with the News on the Ampex VTX 1000. Ampex had beaten RCA (the predominant supplier of broadcast equipment and owner of the NBC Network) in getting video recording to the marketplace. But Ampex’s machine was only capable of recording and playing back monochrome images.
RCA had spent millions making color coque samsung s10 television a reality. Also, RCA convinced the FCC to reverse its decision to approve theCBS field sequential color system. RCA argued their system didn’t make obsolete all the black and white televisions in American homes as CBS’s system did. RCA’s system was “compatible color television” meaning the millions of black and white sets already in use would be able to see the program on their current set in monochrome. For the consumer, however, the cost of a color television was steep and the results were not always predictable as owners fiddled with finicky controls.
Then there was the lack of color programming. Without color shows, color TV was caught in the classic “which came first the chicken or the egg” situation, and color receiver sales languished. After the FCC’s approval of RCA’s system in December, 1953, NBC rushed to get color programs on the air but other networks held back citing the high cost of converting to color equipment and higher program production costs.
Exacerbating the color problem for NBC and RCA was the inability to provide color versions of their live shows to western time zone affiliates. When NBC began producing color shows in 1954, they were being sent out to the Eastern and Central time zones live. They were not able to provide the same service to their western audiences who were still stuck with watching muddy black and white kinescopes due to the difference in times between east and west. Even the programs produced in color at NBC in California would appear later in Los Angeles in black and white.
With the exception of live sports or specials, about half the United States was only able to see everyday shows in monochrome. However, due the extra time required for processing color film, they did not solve the problem of getting shows to west coast audiences the same day on a three hour time zone delay.
RCA was working on videotape. Under much pressure from corporate management, they had a mission to build a television recording mechanism but it had to be capable of color recording and playback from the start. Unfortunately, they were mired in a clumsy system that required tapes moving at high speed and needed multiple machines to deliver just one full length coque autres galaxy samsung program.
To fill the gap, RCA entered into a joint effort with Eastman Kodak to resurrect Kodak’s obsolete Kodacolor 16mm film process and revive it as thelenticular color kinescope process. Using a special black and white film George Eastman developed in 1928, the stock is coated with tiny lenticular lenses that when projected through the correct filters yielded color images. Using a black and white film stock would save the extra processing time color film stock required and put the lenticular color kinescopes on a time schedule already in common use for kines by the networks. coque samsung galaxy s7 comme des garcons RCA Engineers worked with Kodak to adapt it for their purposes and inSeptember, 1956, a few months after the April introduction of videotape by Ampex, they demonstrated it to the press.
But it was not well received. According to the New York Times, the blues were purplish and images tended to be fuzzy. Overlapping and bleeding of colors were evident. In spite of all the problems, the system was put into daily use. For the first time, the West Coast coque samsung galaxy a5 2017 hakuna matata could see the same programs in color the Eastern United States had enjoyed a few hours before. Except what they saw had the same problems kinescopes had from the beginning. Only now, color shifts and desaturation added to the annoyance. NBC couldn’t wait for RCA Labs to come up with a video tape recorder built from the ground up for color. Sales of color TV’s were at a standstill. In Billboard’s ‘News in Brief’ section from its December 4, 1954 edition, it was predicted sales of color sets would reach 300,000 the following year. Butby 1957, only 150,000 color sets had been sold nationwide. Something had to be done about color videotape and it had to be done fast.
When Ampex first unveiled their first videotape machines, NBC/RCA ordered several of them. The first one went to RCA Laboratories in New Jersey to be reverse engineered. In addition to re engineering the Ampex equipment for their own line of television tape machines, RCA and NBC engineers also went to work to figure out a way to adapt the Ampex machines to have color capability. While this was going on, NBC continued to limp along with the lenticular color kinescopes of their live color shows.
Finally, by early 1958, engineers were able to adapt NBC’s original Ampex machines to record and playback color.
It was a format only active for a short time and quickly became obsolete. The adaptation was so sensitive, tapes had to be played on the machine they were recorded on. Compounding the problem, making a copy of a tape introduced severe generational loss and a degraded picture resulted…